Gingivitis is inflammation of the gums.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Gingivitis is a form of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is inflammation and infection that destroys the tissues that support the teeth, including the gums, the periodontal ligaments, and the tooth sockets (alveolar bone).

Gingivitis is due to the long-term effects of plaque deposits on your teeth. Plaque is a sticky material made of bacteria, mucus, and food debris that develops on the exposed parts of the teeth. It is a major cause of tooth decay.

If you do not remove plaque, it turns into a hard deposit called tartar (or calculus) that becomes trapped at the base of the tooth. Plaque and tartar irritate and inflame the gums. Bacteria and the toxins they produce cause the gums to become infected, swollen, and tender.

The following raise your risk for gingivitis:

Certain infections and body-wide (systemic) diseases

Poor dental hygiene

Pregnancy (hormonal changes increase the sensitivity of the gums)

Uncontrolled diabetes

Misaligned teeth, rough edges of fillings, and ill-fitting or unclean mouth appliances (such as braces, dentures, bridges, and crowns) Use of certain medications, including phenytoin, bismuth, and some birth control pills

Many people have some amount of gingivitis. It usually develops during puberty or early adulthood due to hormonal changes. It may persist or recur frequently, depending on the health of your teeth and gums.


Bleeding gums (blood on toothbrush even with gentle brushing of the teeth)

Bright red or red-purple appearance to gums

Gums that are tender when touched, but otherwise painless

Mouth sores

Swollen gums

Shiny appearance to gums

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  • Thanks Vu Le..thats really true...:) thanks for the addition

  • Good topic smarty nims to discuss. Few people aware of this kind of disease. Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums surrounding the teeth. It is one of many periodontal diseases that can effect your teeth. As you discussed its causes and symptoms, i want to add some of the precautions which we should use during this.

    - You should do regular dental visits to remove plaque.

    - You can do regular brushing and flossing after removal of plaque. It can minimize plaque formation.

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